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Footprint/Service Area view:

What is the '% of Grads Included' and why is it set to 70% by default?

To create a graduate 'Footprint', we calculate the number of graduates from a selected state or program in each county, rank these counties from highest to lowest, and select counties to be shaded that have the highest number of graduates in them until 70% of all graduates are accounted for. For example, if a program has 100 active graduates practicing in the U.S., and 50 are practicing in County A, 15 in County B, 5 in County C, and 3 each in Counties D- M, only Counties A, B, & C (which constitute 70% of graduates) will be shaded in the Medical School Graduate Footprint map. This methodology, which borrows from business industry literature on market service area, is thought to be a reasonable standard for gauging the core service area of a medical school program(s). In the event of a tie (two or more counties have the same number of graduates) that crosses the footprint threshold, the county with a smaller population is included in the footprint first (using 2000 Censusdata); in other words, out of counties with the same number of graduates, those that might be presumed to be less dependent on those graduates are ranked lower. However, you have the option of adjusting the percentage to reflect your the footprint threshold most appropriate to your situation, needs, or interests.

What data are used to create the footprint?

We use physician practice location information from the 2009 American Medical Association Physician Masterfile. From a geocoded Masterfile, we extract practice location (including county) for each active physician practicing in the United States. We then use this information to attach each physician to a current medical school program (graduates from closed medical schools are not included in the footprints) and a county of practice.

The AMA Physician Masterfile is perhaps the most widely used dataset in studies of the national physician workforce, but it is not without limitations. Despite the following statement, "The AMA seeks to achieve a high degree of accuracy in the organization and publication of physician data. Physicians' records are subject to change and are continuously updated through the extensive data collection and verification efforts performed within SDR.", not every physician is captured, nor can we guarantee that every physician whose data is captured has accurate business address and school of training information.

How do the data become footprints, and why is the threshold set to 70% by default?

To create a graduate 'Footprint' or service area, we calculate the number of graduates from a selected state or program in each county, rank these counties from highest to lowest, and select counties to be shaded that have the highest number of graduates in them until 70% of all graduates are accounted for. For example, if a program has 100 active graduates practicing in the U.S., and 50 are practicing in County A, 15 in County B, 5 in County C, and 3 each in Counties D- M, only Counties A, B, & C (which constitute 70% of graduates) will be shaded in the Medical School Graduate Footprint map. This methodology, which borrows from business industry literature on market service area, is thought to be a reasonable standard for gauging the core service area of a medical school program(s). Counties with the same number of graduates are ranked by the ratio of graduates to the county's population (using 2000 Census data); in other words, out of counties with the same number of graduates, those that are less dependent on those graduates are ranked lower.

How to I change the % of Grads Included?

You can adjust the '% of Grads Included' in the Refine Data on Map box at the top right of the screen.

How can I use the Medical School Graduate Footprint map?

Footprint maps can be used to show which counties a state or school's graduates are serving, whether a state or school's graduates are caring for underserved communities, whether a state or school's graduates are working in rural communities, and whether graduates are practicing in their state of training. Such maps are useful for program funding and advocacy.

The rankings and the Advanced Tool specialty filter refer to Primary Care. How is Primary Care defined?

Primary Care in the Med School Mapper is determined by the Primary Specialty field in the 2009 American Medical Association’s Physician Masterfile. The following specialties are counted toward Primary Care:

Adolescent Medicine, Family Medicine, Family Practice, Geriatrics (Family Practice), Sports Medicine (Family Practice), General Practice, Adolescent Medicine (Internal Medicine), General Preventive Medicine, Internal Medicine, Geriatric Medicine (Internal Medicine), Internal Medicine/Preventative Medicine, Sports Medicine (Internal Medicine), Public Health and Preventative Medicine, Internal Medicine/Pediatrics, Adolescent Medicine/Pediatrics, Pediatrics, and Sports Medicine (Pediatrics)

The rankings and the Advanced Tool specialty filter refer to Family Medicine. How is Family Medicine defined?

Family Medicine in the Med School Mapper is determined by the Primary Specialty field in the 2009 American Medical Association’s Physician Masterfile. The following specialties are counted toward Family Medicine:

Adolescent Medicine, Family Medicine, Family Practice, Geriatrics (Family Practice), Sports Medicine (Family Practice), and General Practice

The Advanced Tool specialty filter refers to General Internal Medicine. How is General Internal Medicine defined?

General Internal Medicine in the Med School Mapper is determined by the Primary Specialty field in the 2009 American Medical Association’s Physician Masterfile. The following specialties are counted toward General Internal Medicine:

Adolescent Medicine(Internal Medicine), General Preventive Medicine, Internal Medicine, Geriatric Medicine (Internal Medicine), Internal Medicine/Preventative Medicine, Sports Medicine (Internal Medicine), Public Health and Preventative Medicine, and Internal Medicine/Pediatrics

The rankings and the Advanced Tool specialty filter refers to General Surgery. How is General Surgery defined?

General Surgery in the Med School Mapper is determined by the Primary Specialty field in the 2009 American Medical Association’s Physician Masterfile. The only specialty counted towards General Surgery is General Surgery.

How are graduates practicing in rural areas counted?

This is determined by the geocoded address, or ZIP Code, of the physician that is either noted as the practice location or is the only address available in the 2009 American Medical Association’s Physician Masterfile. The county of each graduate’s address is matched with the United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) 2003 Rural Urban Continuum Codes (RUCC). If the county is designated as rural in the RUCC, then that graduate is counted as practicing in a rural area.

How are graduates practicing in low-income areas counted?

This is determined by the geocoded address, or ZIP Code, of the physician that is either noted as the practice location or is the only address available in the 2009 American Medical Association’s Physician Masterfile. The county of each graduate’s address is matched with poverty information from the 2008-2009 Area Resource File. The county is considered a low-income area if greater than 20% of the population is living at or below 200% of the Federal Poverty Level.

Penetration of Total Pop View:

What data are used to create the penetration of total population map?

We use physician practice location information from the 2009 American Medical Association Physician Masterfile. From a geocoded Masterfile, we extract practice location (including county) for each active physician practicing in the United States. We then use this information to attach each physician to a medical school program and a county of practice. Lastly, we calculate a penetration rate by dividing the number of graduates (from the selected school or state) in a particular county, by the number of people living in that same county.

The AMA Physician Masterfile is perhaps the most widely used dataset in studies of the national physician workforce, but it is not without limitations. Despite the following statement, "The AMA seeks to achieve a high degree of accuracy in the organization and publication of physician data. Physicians' records are subject to change and are continuously updated through the extensive data collection and verification efforts performed within SDR.", not every physician is captured, nor can we guarantee that every physician whose data is captured has accurate business address and school of training information.

What is the difference between penetration and footprint maps?

A footprint provides information on the geographic distribution of graduates, while penetration gives information about how much a geography depends on a particular medical school(s).

How can I use the Medical School Graduate penetration per Total Population map?

Pentetration maps can be used to show which counties a state's or school's graduates are serving and how intensely. Similar to the basic footprint maps, penetration maps can also show whether a state or school's graduates are caring for underserved communities, whether a state or school's graduates are working in rural communities, and whether graduates are practicing in their state of training. The maps can be used to identify the communities that depend on a program's or state's graduates. Such maps are useful for program funding and advocacy.

Penetration by Total Physicians View:

What data are used to create the penetration per total physicians map?

We use physician practice location information from the 2009 American Medical Association Physician Masterfile. From a geocoded Masterfile, we extract practice location (including county) for each active physician practicing in the United States. We then use this information to attach each physician to a medical school program and a county of practice. Lastly, we calculate a penetration rate by dividing the number of graduates (from the selected school or state) in a particular county, by the total number of physicians in that same county.

The AMA Physician Masterfile is perhaps the most widely used dataset in studies of the national physician workforce, but it is not without limitations. Despite the following statement, "The AMA seeks to achieve a high degree of accuracy in the organization and publication of physician data. Physicians' records are subject to change and are continuously updated through the extensive data collection and verification efforts performed within SDR.", not every physician is captured, nor can we guarantee that every physician whose data is captured has accurate business address and school of training information.

How can I use the Medical School Graduate penetration per Total Physicians map?

Penetrationmaps can be used to show which counties a state's or school's graduates are serving and how intensely. Similar to the basic footprint maps, penetration maps can also show whether a state or school's graduates are caring for underserved communities, whether a state or school's graduates are working in rural communities, and whether graduates are practicing in their state of training. The maps can be used to identify the communities that depend on a program's or state's graduates. Such maps are useful for program funding and advocacy.

Refine Data on Map box:

What is the 'Specialty' filter?

With the 'Specialty' filter you can choose to display only graduates who are practicing a specific specialty(ies), as listed in 2009 American Medical Association Masterfile, as well as by speciality groupings developed by the Robert Graham Center, including Primary Care and Family Medicine.

What is the 'Practice Type' filter?

With the 'Practice Type' filter you can choose to display only graduates of a specific practice type(s), such as Direct Patient Care (default) or Research, as listed in the 2009 American Medical Association Masterfile.

What are 'Graduate Practice Locations'?

Graduate practice locations are based on the practice addresses provided by physicians in the 2009 American Medical Association Masterfile. This is perhaps the most widely used dataset in studies of the national physician workforce, but it is not without limitations. Despite the following statement, "The AMA seeks to achieve a high degree of accuracy in the organization and publication of physician data. Physicians' records are subject to change and are continuously updated through the extensive data collection and verification efforts performed within SDR.", not every physician is captured, nor can we guarantee that every physician whose data is captured has accurate business address and school of training information.

Other:

Can I export the map on the screen to a PDF file?

Yes, by clicking the print icon, the option to 'Save as PDF' is available. Add the '.pdf' filetype extension at the end of your filename to ensure that the map will be properly downloaded as a PDF.

Can I export the raw data of the map that I am viewing?

This function is not available.

How do I print the map on the screen?

A map can be printed directly from the mapping screen by clicking the 'Print' icon above the map to the right.

How do I see Alaska, Hawaii, or Puerto Rico?

Alaska, Hawaii, or Puerto Rico can be seen by using the 'Zoom To' tool toward the top right of the mapper, or you can manually zoom and drag the map itself.

How are ties determined for the top schools serving a state or county?

The school with the greater number of overall graduates wins the tie.